Friday, January 13, 2017

Islam & Christianity: The Demonization and Exploitation of Female Sexuality




Below is a guest post by : Michael Sherlock, which originally appeared on Michael's blog

I hope you enjoy this wonderful essay as much as I did. 

-Eiynah

*****

The struggle of democratic secularism, religious tolerance, individual freedom and feminism against authoritarian patriarchal religion, culture and morality is going on all over the world – including the Islamic world, where dissidents are regularly jailed, killed, exiled or merely intimidated and silenced.[1]                                       

~Ellen Willis


Introduction
Sexuality is notoriously difficult to define.[2] Lemon describes it as encompassing ‘body image, self-esteem, social interactions, myths, feelings, and interpersonal relationships’,[3] whilst Lefebvre argues that sexuality is ‘verbal, visual, tactual, and olfactory communication that expresses intimacy and love’.[4] Thus, female sexuality might cautiously yet not exhaustively be defined as encompassing female body image, self-esteem, female-centred social interactions, sexual myths surrounding women, the feelings men and women have regarding women, and gender roles and expectations pertaining to the female as a sexual being.[5] These criteria are heavily influenced, if not entirely determined, by social, cultural, religious, and political pressures.[6] Therefore, the nature and qualities of a given society dictate and determine female sexuality.[7]
An honest and accurate discussion on Islam and Christianity’s obsession with controlling female sexuality[8] cannot adequately take place absent an appraisal of the pervasive patriarchal context in which both religions are firmly rooted.[9] Christianity and Islam are religions made by men and predominantly for men, and both religions have within their core doctrines and scriptures religious justifications for the disenfranchisement of women, as well as insurance policies which ensure that the issue of female sexuality remains within the firm grasp of men, both present and past.[10] Notwithstanding the efforts of modern feminist movements within these two patriarchal religions, Islam and Christianity, wherever they yield significant sway over a society, continue to suppress and oppress female sexuality in accordance with the ideological, philosophical, social, cultural and political building blocks that form their patriarchal foundations.[11]
This essay will examine the way in which “Islam” controls female sexuality by evincing core scripture and by examining historical and contemporary contexts. Further, this essay will contrast Islam’s treatment of female sexuality with Christianity’s to demonstrate that Christianity has been far more oppressive with regards to sexuality in general. Finally, this essay will briefly address the shortcomings of Islamic feminism and apologetics with regards to claims surrounding the alleged sovereignty of women to determine their own sexuality.

Patriarchy and Patriarchal Religion
Patriarchy, as initially defined by Maine and Morgan in the nineteenth century, describes an organizing principle based on the biblical model, upon which male-dominated societies place power in the hands of the father, husband and brother over the mother, wife, and sister.[12] Radcliffe-Brown extended upon this definition to assert that patriarchy describes a ‘society in which descent is traced through the male line, residence is patrilocal, inheritance of property, and succession is in the male line and the family is patripotestal or that there is male authority’.[13] Malinowski, however, simplified the term patriarchy to simply describe a patripotestal system which places power in the hands of men over women.[14] Feminist scholar Sylvia Walby defines patriarchy as a ‘system of social structures and practices in which men dominate, oppress and exploit women’.[15]
There is little doubt that both Christianity and Islam are patriarchal religions.[16] Both religions were constructed upon the acutely patriarchal Abrahamic religious system.[17] Discussing women in Islam, Byzantine Christianity, and western Christianity, Stearns argues: ‘Both Islam and Christianity faced a major tension in principle: they granted women souls and the chance of salvation, but they regarded women as inferior, more prone to evil. Neither religion undermined patriarchy’.[18] Further, in describing the purely patriarchal soil in which the religion of Islam was first sown, Inhorn states: ‘Like Judaism and Christianity before it, Islam came into being in a patriarchal society where patrilateral endogamy, the practice of marrying within the tribal lineage, set the shape for the oppression of women in patrilineal society long before the rise of Islam (Tillon 1983).[19]   The purpose of Inhorn’s argument here was to establish grounds for shielding the Islamic ideology from justified charges of female oppression, and to shift the focus onto the ‘social, cultural and political-economic conditions’,[20] which, ironically, Inhorn argued were the very building blocks for the patriarchal ideology she sought to defend.

Female Sexuality in Islam
There is no one thing which might rigidly be called ‘Islam’. Like all religions, Islam is a confusion of contradictions, variations, and nuances which have arisen due to the fact that religion is, like its creators, a messily evolving imperfect phenomenon. The ‘Islam’ of one Muslim can be vastly different from the ‘Islam’ of another. Yet the acknowledgment of such nuance in no way prevents the application of a definition of Islam cemented in uniting elements and principles. The primary scripture of Islam, the Qur’an, unites an otherwise diverse collection of individuals, however, interpretation enters the equation to once again divide those who call themselves Muslim. As such, there are Sufis, Shi’ites, Sunnis and within these schools there are even more divisions. There are LGBT Muslims, feminist Muslims, reformist Muslims, secularist Muslims, liberal and conservative Muslims. This diverse array of categories clearly indicates that a religion is more than just the sum of a few of its parts; it is a fluid phenomenon that must be interpreted and analysed as a whole. To add further nuance and confusion, a religion also involves an interactive process between individual adherents and their religion’s doctrines and traditions, which varies and develops over time and space.  Hence, a discussion on female sexuality within ‘Islam’ must be sufficiently cautious to avoid oversimplification. The safest means by which one may assess the relationship between Islam and female sexuality is with an examination of the Qur’an and the theological and historical contexts in which it was first transmitted, as well as by examining extra-religious influences that have contributed to the various evolutions and devolutions of Islam in this respect.
According to the Qur’an, a woman’s sexuality is not her own to determine, but a man’s.[21] A wife must submit to the sexual desires of her husband lest she be admonished, isolated, or even beaten.[22] A man may enjoy the sex with multiple wives, but such a right is not merely denied to a woman, it is incomprehensible.[23] A female captive becomes the sex-slave of her male captor, whom the Qur’an expressly gives to the male victor as a spoil of war.[24] The Qur’an expressly states that the wife is a tilth unto her husband, who is encouraged to enter his subordinate female partner when and how he pleases.[25] There are verses in the Qur’an that encourage husbands to be respectful of their wives,[26] yet such ‘respect’ should not necessarily be interpreted in a modern sense, but within the patriarchal context of male and female gender relations of medieval southern Arabia. Examining the hadith to provide some historical context, it’s clear that the primary exemplar of Islam, Muhammad, had great respect for his wives,[27] yet his ‘respect’ was able to accommodate violently striking his child-bride Aishah in the chest when she was mildly deceptive,[28] laughing when his father-in-law, Abu Bakr, beat two of his wives for annoying him[29] – he consummated his marriage to his 17-year-old Jewish wife, Safiyya bint Huyayy, shortly after his men killed her fiancĂ© and her family,[30] he instructed an abused woman to return to her violent husband and submit to his sexual desires, even though, according to Aishah, her face so badly bruised that it was ‘greener than the veil she was wearing’.[31] The point here is that respect for women in both Quranic and historical contexts does not necessarily equate with the notion as we understand it today.
Yet such an obvious reality has not prevented numerous modern Muslims from pragmatically applying modern notions and selective readings of the Qur’an and the Sunna to arrive at a less patriarchal version of Islam.[32] Of course, in contrast to progressive movements within the Ummah there are increasingly popular Salafist movements, and such movements seek to return Islam to its medieval origins, a time Wahhabists and other Salafists see as representing a purer form of the faith.[33] It must also be acknowledged that there exists a wealth of passages and teachings within the Qur’an and ‘sahih’ hadiths that justify and legitimate their stricter application and interpretation of Islam. Having said this, it bears repeating that a religion is not merely the sum of a few of its parts. This being the case, the modern relationship between Islam and female sexuality is one underscored by extreme tensions between those who wish to apply strict seventh century Islamic values and those who prefer a more modern, selective, tempered, and pragmatic application of their religion.[34]
Dialmy argues that sexual standards in Islam are self-contradictory, stating: ‘Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality…Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves)…’[35]    This paradox distinguishes Islam from Christianity, because Christianity did not, and does not, generally speaking, entice the exercise of sexuality; on the contrary, it roundly renounces and represses it.[36] In fact, Islam’s more rational yet paradoxical acceptance of human sexuality represents one of the popular complaints made by many fathers and thinkers within Christianity over the centuries. Aquinas complained that ‘He [Muhammad] seduced the people [men] by promises of carnal pleasure to which the concupiscence of the flesh goads us’.[37] Discussing the fifteenth century Christian theologian and translator of the Qur’an, Juan De Segovia, Wolf remarks: ‘…he [Juan De Segovia] repeatedly remarked to his readers that Islam was a religion that encouraged sexual licence, one of the most common charges made by medieval Christian polemicists…He was convinced that this promise of everlasting sexual gratification was a significant factor in the spread of this religion’.[38]

Sexuality in Christianity
The outright repression of human sexuality in Christianity is rooted in the New Testament, particularly within the Pauline epistles.[39] Christianity’s emphasis on controlling female sexuality, however, derives from its interpretation of the etiological/charter myth found in the first three chapters of Genesis, in which Eve, per the popular Christian exegesis, symbolically, and often literally, represents the inherent dangers of female sexuality.[40] She is the temptress who brought about the downfall of humanity and juxtaposed to her is the Virgin Mary. Mary is the antithesis of Eve, the blessed virgin, of whom Irenaeus in the late second century wrote: ‘As Eve was seduced into disobedience to God, so Mary was persuaded into obedience to God …That is why the Lord proclaims himself the Son of Man, the one who renews in himself that first man from whom the race born of woman was formed; as by a man’s defeat our race fell into the bondage of death, so by a man’s victory we were to rise again to life’.[41]
From this excerpt of Irenaeus’ ‘Against the Heresies’ two prevalent themes in Christian theology can be observed: Firstly, disobedient women are easily seduced by demonic influences and secondly, women possess the [sexual] power to influence men to the detriment of our entire species, which was a prevalent motif throughout the witch craze in late medieval Europe and Britain.[42] Thus, to guard against the female’s sexuality is one of the most crucial areas of concern for the pious male, who – should he fall prey to the beckonings of the flesh – will participate in the “literal” downfall of ‘mankind’. Such psychological pressure, it may be argued, appears to have resulted in an animosity toward women within not only Christianity, but also within Islam. The author of Ecclesiastes writes: ‘I find more bitter than death the woman who is a snare, whose heart is a trap and whose hands are chains. The man who pleases God will escape her, but the sinner she will ensnare…while I was still searching but not finding– I found one upright man among a thousand, but not one upright woman among them all’.[43] Here we find a parallel in Islamic scripture, with Muhammad alleging: ‘”I looked at Paradise and found poor people forming the majority of its inhabitants; and I looked at Hell and saw that the majority of its inhabitants were women.”’[44]



Abrahamic Context
To understand the inherent animosity toward women and female sexuality in both of these religions, an examination of the historical contexts within which these religions were first formed is required. Further, being that both of these religions are theologically rooted in Judaism, it would be prudent to also examine their parent-religion’s influence in this regard. In her exposition on the image of women in the Old Testament, Ruether argues: ‘The wife’s primary contribution to her family was her sexuality, which was regarded as the exclusive property of her husband, both in respect to its pleasure and its fruit. Adultery involving a married woman was a crime of first magnitude in Israelite law (Lev. 20:10; Exod. 20:14), ranking with murder and major religious offenses as a transgression demanding the death penalty…The issue was not simply one of extramarital sex (which was openly tolerated in certain circumstances). The issue was one of property and authority. Adultery was a violation of the fundamental and exclusive right of a man to the sexuality of his wife. It was an attack upon his authority in the family and consequently upon the solidarity and integrity of the family itself’.[45]  Notwithstanding certain Muslim, Christian and Jewish feminists’ revisionist attempts to soften the patriarchal character of their respective religions, female sexuality in the Abrahamic religious context cannot be truly extricated from its patriarchal roots and the belief that an omnipotent God authored or inspired various patriarchal prescriptions as universal and enduring wisdom is a firm anchor that keeps ancient and medieval patriarchy alive and well in the twenty-first century.  An example of Muslim feminism’s attempt to justify and rationalize obvious patriarchy can be found in the numerous apologia offered to justify and rationalize the overtly patriarchal ‘modesty culture’, symbolized by the hijab, niqab, and other female-specific coverings.[46] British sociologist Linda Woodhead sees the veiling of Muslim women as a form of female liberation, because according to Woodhead, it affords Muslim women the opportunity to leave the home and participate in the public sphere without forfeiting their culture or their history,[47] which, ironically, are acutely patriarchal. Egyptian feminist Nawal El Saadawi, on the other hand, views the veiling of women as oppressive, saying: ‘The veil is a tool for the oppression of women…They [Muslim women in the west] defend the veil in the name of mulit-culturalism. It is a lie’.[48]
The disproportionate imposition of physical ‘modesty’ upon female sexuality, which is not unique to Islam, may be argued to lend weight to Ruether’s argument regarding female sexuality being the exclusive gift and property of her conjugal patriarch. A popular social media campaign in recent years that sought to normalize the veiling of women compared veiled women to wrapped candy.[49] The irony of this campaign was that the women involved were comparing themselves to pieces of confectionary – female sexuality was being discursively described and analogized as a delicious treat for sanctioned males, thereby once again evincing the inescapable patriarchal origins described in Ruether’s argument concerning female sexuality.

Islamic Feminism
Eyadat identifies four primary strands of Islamic feminism: apologist, reformist, hermeneutic and rejectionist. According to Eyadat, apologist feminists seek to reinforce existing patriarchal gender roles.[50] Reformists framed their reformations upon a ‘western framework’, and for this reason received little popularity, and yet their highest ambition was to ‘redefine certain notions of women’s rights and gender roles in order for women to better perform their given societal duties’.[51] Hermeneutic feminism, to which Eyadat subscribes, seeks to employ ijtihad (literally ‘striving’ or ‘exertion’  – legal term: ‘independent reasoning/thinking’)[52] in a modern Quranic context in order to provide a balance to an ‘almost exclusively male-dominated Quranic interpretation’.[53]  The final strain of Islamic feminism identified by Eyadat, rejectionist, holds that Islam is inherently patriarchal and incompatible with gender equality,[54] a view that could be argued to be the closest to the historical origins and minds of the early authors of the Qur’an and Sunna, for it is very difficult to reinterpret Muhammad’s pronouncement regarding the intellectual inferiority of women,[55] or his “revelation” concerning the inherent female drives that lead them more than men into hellfire,[56] without taking into account the time, culture and regional influences that underpinned his worldview. Furthermore, if Muhammad is the ideal Muslim, as the Qur’an claims,[57] then such negative beliefs concerning women, and his conduct toward them, although not always misogynistic and exploitative, must be held to be superlative, leaving little room for Islamic feminists to effectively extricate Muslim women from patriarchy. This in turn renders Islamic feminism devoid of any principle which might be even loosely associated with anything remotely resembling ‘feminism’. If such is in fact the case, and the rejectionists are correct, which scripture and historical context seem to suggest, then female sexuality in Islam will forever remain a male-owned commodity – a covered piece of confectionary for the exclusive enjoyment of conjugal patriarchs.

Conclusion
Islam and Christianity are both patriarchal religions rooted in patriarchal culture. As such, both religions are infused with patriarchal beliefs concerning female sexuality. Christianity has successfully demonized female sexuality by exploiting the etiological/charter myths of Eve and the Fall of Man, and by demonizing sexuality outright. Islam, on the other hand, has embraced sexuality, yet predominantly for the male’s use and enjoyment. Patriarchal beliefs concerning female sexuality are evident within the core doctrines of these religions, which, as discussed above, place the dominant discourse surrounding female sexuality in the hands of men, past and present. To rebuke or reform the patriarchal prescriptions concerning female sexuality in either religion is to rebuke or reform the essential building blocks of both religions – namely, the Bible and the Qur’an. Put simply, to reject the oppressive constraints placed upon female sexuality in either religion is to reject the “omniscient wisdom” of the foundational texts. For this reason, many feminists within Christianity and Islam have had to resolve their dissonance by placing their religion ahead their feminism, thereby contributing little more than vain rationalizations which have done little more than justify and excuse patriarchy. On the other hand, it may be argued that the fluid nature of religion itself can afford religious feminists room to manoeuvre, yet the length and breadth of such room will always be confined and constrained by the significance each of these religions place on their foundational texts, which, in both cases, are believed to be divine manifestos dictated or inspired by an all-knowing patriarch, whose wisdom is incomprehensibly profound, and by whose patriarchal prescriptions such feminists must ultimately abide and obey. Herein lies the true power of these religions to regulate and control female sexuality, for in the abridged words of Voltaire, ‘It is difficult to free [the oppressed] from the chains they revere’.
Support Michael Sherlock's work here

Support the Nice Mangos blog here
End Notes
  1. Ellen Willis, The Mass Psychology of Terrorism, cited in: Stanley Aronowitz (ed.) and Heather Gautney (ed.), Implicating Empire: Globalization and Resistance in the 21st Century World Order, New York: Basic Books, 2003, p. 97.
  2. Robert A. Padgug, Sexual Matters: On Conceptualizing Sexuality in History, cited in: Richard Parker and Peter Aggleton, Culture, Society and Sexuality: A Reader, London: UCL Press, 1999, p. 17.
  3. A. Lemon (1993). ‘Sexual Counselling and Spinal Cord Injury’. Sexuality and Disability. 11 (1), 73-97, cited in: Eva Miller and Irmo Marini, Sexuality and Spinal Cord Injury Counselling Implications, cited in: Irmo Marini (ed.) and Mark A. Stebnicki, The Psychological and Social Impact of Illness and Disability6th Ed., New York: Springer Publishing Company, LLC, 2012, p. 135.
  4. Ibid.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Pat Caplan (ed.), The Cultural Construction on Sexuality, London: Routledge, 1987, pp. 1-10.
  7. Gail Hawkes, A Sociology of Sex and Sexuality, Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1996, p. 8.
  8. Dr DCA Hillman, Original Sin: Ritual Child Rape and the Church, Berkley, California: Ronin, 2012, p. 26; Cheris Kramarae (ed.) and Dale Spender (ed.), Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women: Global Women’s Issues and Knowledge, Vol. 1: Ability – Education: Globalization, ‘Christianity’, New York: Routledge, 2000, p. 169; Haideh Moghissi (ed.), Women and Islam: Critical Concepts in Sociology, Vol. 1: Images and Realities, London: Routledge, 2005, p. 18; Haideh Moghissi, Populism and Feminism in Iran: Women’s Struggle in a Male-Defined Revolutionary Movement, London: MacMillan Press Ltd, 1994, p. 76; Etin Anwar, Gender and Self in Islam, London: Routledge, 2006, p. 145.
  9. Vern L. Bullough (ed.), Brenda Shelton (ed.), Sarah Slavin (ed.), The Subordinated Sex: A History of Attitudes Toward Women, Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1988, pp. 113-114; Fatima Mernissi, Beyond the Veil: Male-Female Dynamics in Modern Muslim Society, Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1975, p. 82; Haideh Moghissi (ed.), Women and Islam: Critical Concepts in Sociology, Vol. 1: Images and Realities, London: Routledge, 2005, p. 177; Deborah F. Sawyer, Women and Religion in the First Christian Centuries, London: Routledge, 1996, pp. 110-114.
  10. For example, The Qur’an, 4:34, 2:223, Yusuf Ali translation; The Bible, Genesis 3:16; 1 Corinthians 11:3, 14:34; Ephesians 5:22-23, NIV.
  11. Kamila Klingorova and Tomas Havlicek, ‘Religion and Gender Inequality: The Status of Women in the Societies of World Religions’, Moravian Geographical Reports, Feb., 2015, Vol. 23, cited at: http://www.academia.edu/13490676/Religion_and_gender_inequality_The_status_of_women_in_the_societies_of_world_religions, accessed on 10th Jan, 2017; Sally Baden, ‘The Position of Women in Islamic Countries: Possibilities, Constraints, and Strategies for Change’, Bridge Development Gender, Sept., 1992, Report. 4, cited at: http://www.gewamed.net/share/img_documents/15_rep_so1.pdf, accessed on 10th, 2017.
  12. Ranjana Subberwal, Dictionary of Sociology, New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, 2009, cited at: https://books.google.co.jp/books?id=lNgIfUqkwusC&pg=SL16-PA2&dq=Sociology+patriarchy+definition&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjp1LuWxpjRAhXLE7wKHSlrAdYQ6AEIKjAC#v=onepage&q=Sociology%20patriarchy%20definition&f=false, accessed on 29th Dec, 2016.
  13. Ibid.
  14. Ibid.
  15. Sylvia Walby, Theorizing Patriarchy, Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd., 1990, p. 20.
  16. Arvind Sharma (ed.), Women in World Religions, Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1987, p. 17; R.W.J. Austin, Islam and the Feminine, cited in: Denis MacEoin and Ahmed Al-Shahi, Islam in the Modern World, New York: Routledge, 1983, pp. 36-37; Rosemary Radford-Ruether, Women in World Religions: Discrimination, Liberation, and Backlash, cited in: Arvind Sharma (ed.), The World’s Religions: A Contemporary Reader, Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2011, p. 145.
  17. Melissa Raphael, Introducing Theology: Discourse on the Goddess, Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999, p. 32; Aaron W. Hughes, Abrahamic Religions: On the Uses and Abuses of History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, p. 79.
  18. Peter N. Stearns (ed.), World History in Documents: A Comparative Reader, 2nd Ed., New York: New York University Press, 2008, p. 90.
  19. Marcia C. Inhorn, Infertility and Patriarchy: The Cultural Politics of Gender and Family Life in Egypt, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996, p. 31.
  20. Ibid. p. 32.
  21. The Qur’an, 2:223, Yusuf Ali translation.
  22. The Qur’an, 4:34, Yusuf Ali translation.
  23. The Qur’an, 4:3, Yusuf Ali translation.
  24. The Qur’an, 33:50, 23:5-6, 70:29-30, 4:24, 8:69, Yusuf Ali translation.
  25. The Qur’an, 2:223, Yusuf Ali translation.
  26. The Qur’an, 4:3, 4:19, Yusuf Ali translation.
  27. Jami’ At-Tirmidhi, Vol. 1, Book 46, hadith No. 3895, cited at: https://sunnah.com/urn/637830, accessed on 10th, 2017.
  28. Sahih al-Bukhari, Book 4, hadith 2127, cited at: http://hadithcollection.com/sahihmuslim/132-Sahih%20Muslim%20Book%2004.%20Prayer/9023-sahih-muslim-book-004-hadith-number-2127.html, accessed on 10th, 2017.
  29. Sahih al-Muslim, Book 9, hadith 3506, cited at: https://muflihun.com/muslim/9/3506, accessed on 10th, 2017.
  30. Sahih al-Bukhari, Book 1, Vol. 8, hadith 367; Book 59, hadith 522, cited at: https://www.sahih-bukhari.com/Pages/Bukhari_1_08.php, accessed on 10th, 2017.
  31. Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 7, Book 72, hadith 715, cited at: https://www.sahih-bukhari.com/Pages/Bukhari_7_72.php, accessed on 10th, 2017.
  32. Kecia Ali, Sexual Ethics and Islam: Feminist Reflections on Qur’an, Hadith and Jurisprudence, London: Oneworld Publications, 2016, p. 196.
  33. Joas Wagemakers, Salafism in Jordan: Political Islam in a Quietist Community, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016, p. 228; Zoltan Pall, Lebanese Salafis Between the Gulf and Europe: Development, Fractionalization and Transnational Networks of Salafism in Lebanon, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2013, p. 37.
  34. Bassam Tibi, Political Islam, World Politics and Europe: From Jihadist to Institutional Islamism, London: Routledge, 2014, p. 284.
  35. Abdessamad Dialmy, ‘Sexuality and Islam’, The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, June 2010;15:160–168.
  36. James A. Brundage, Laws, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1987, pp. 80-86.
  37. Thomas Aquinas, On the Truth of the Catholic Faith, Book One: God, Anton C. Pegis trans., Garden City, NY: Image, 1955, p. 73.
  38. Anne Marie Wolf, Juan De Segovia: Lessons of History, cited in: Simon R. Doubleday (ed.) and David Coleman (ed.), In the Light of Medieval Spain: Islam, the West, and the Relevance of the Past, New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008, p. 37.
  39. The Bible, Galatians 5:16-21; Romans 7:5, 8:5; 2 Peter 2:10, Ephesians 2:3,
  40. Robert Crooks and Karla Baur, Our Sexuality, 11th, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2010, p. 12; Robin May Schott, Cognition and Eros: A Critique of the Kantian Paradigm, University Park, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988, p. 44.
  41. Irenaeus, Against the Heresies, cited in: Sophia Institute for Teachers, Love and Mercy: The Story of Salvation: Teacher’s Guide, Washington D.C: Sophia Institute for Teachers, 2015, pp. 30-31.
  42. Hans Peter Broedel, The Malleus Maleficarum and the Construction of Witchcraft: Theology and Popular Belief, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003, pp. 6-7.
  43. The Bible, Ecclesiastes 7:26-28, NIV.
  44. Sahih al-Bukhari, hadith number 3241, cited at: https://www.sunnah.com/urn/30280, accessed on 2nd Jan, 2017; Sahih al-Muslim, hadith number 2737, cited at: https://sunnah.com/muslim/49, accessed on 2nd Jan, 2017.
  45. Rosemary Radford Ruether (ed.), Religion and Sexism: Images of Woman in the Jewish and Christian Traditions, Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 1998, p. 51.
  46. Hanna Yusuf, ‘My Hijab has Nothing to Do with Oppression, It’s a Feminist Statement’, The Guardian, June, 24th, 2015, cited at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/video/2015/jun/24/hijab-not-oppression-feminist-statement-video, accessed on Jan. 7th, 2017; Celene Ibrahim, ‘Wearing the Headscarf is a Matter of Feminism, Aesthetics and Solidarity for Me’, New York Times, Jan. 6th, 2016, cited at: http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2016/01/06/do-non-muslims-help-or-hurt-women-by-wearing-hijabs/wearing-the-headscarf-is-a-matter-of-feminism-aesthetics-and-solidarity-for-me, accessed on Jan. 7th, 2017; Shelina Zahra Janmohamed, ‘Calling all Feminists: Get Over the Veil Debate, Focus on Real Problems’, Aljazeera, 25th, 2013, cited at: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2013/09/calling-all-feminists-get-over-veil-debate-focus-real-problems-201392573343242621.html, accessed on 8th Jan., 2017.
  47. Linda Woodhead, Women and Religion, cited in: Linda Woodhead (ed.), Paul Fletcher (ed.), Hiroko Kawanami (ed.) and David Smith (ed.), Religions in the Modern World, London: Routledge, 2002, p. 400.
  48. Aditi Bhaduri, ‘Interview: Dr Nawal El Saadawi’, News Line Magazine, July, 2006, cited at: http://newslinemagazine.com/magazine/interview-dr-nawal-el-saadawi/, accessed on 10th, 2017.
  49. Maha, ‘Why the Wrapped vs Unwrapped Candy Analogy is Wrong When it Comes to the Hijab’, Mahavalous, 2nd March, 2014, cited at: https://mahavalous.com/2014/03/02/why-the-wrapped-vs-unwrapped-candy-analogy-is-wrong-when-it-comes-to-hijab/, accessed on Jan. 9th, 2017.
  50. Zaid Eyadat, ‘Islamic Feminism: Roots, Development and Policies’, Global Policy, Vol. 4, Issue 4, (Nov. 13th), 359-368.
  51. Ibid.
  52. John L. Esposito (ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003, p. 134.
  53. Ibid.
  54. Ibid.
  55. Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 3, Book 48, hadith 826, cited at: https://sunnah.com/bukhari/52/22, accessed on 10th, 2017.
  56. Sahih al-Bukhari, hadith number 3241, cited at: https://www.sunnah.com/urn/30280, accessed on 2nd Jan, 2017; Sahih al-Muslim, hadith number 2737, cited at: https://sunnah.com/muslim/49, accessed on 2nd Jan, 2017.
  57. The Qur’an, 33:21, Yusuf Ali translation.

 Bibliography  

Religious Texts
The Qur’an, Yusuf Ali translation.
The Bible, New International Version.
Jami’ At-Tirmidhi, Vol. 1, cited at: https://sunnah.com/urn/637830, accessed on 10th Jan., 2017.
Sahih al-Muslim, Book 9, hadith 3506, cited at: https://muflihun.com/muslim/9/3506, accessed on 10th Jan., 2017.
Secondary Sources
Ali, Kecia, Sexual Ethics and Islam: Feminist Reflections on Qur’an, Hadith and Jurisprudence, London: Oneworld Publications, 2016.
Anwar, Etin, Gender and Self in Islam, London: Routledge, 2006.
Aquinas, Thomas, On the Truth of the Catholic Faith, Book One: God, Pegis, Anton, C, trans., Garden City, NY: Image, 1955.
Austin, R.W.J., Islam and the Feminine, cited in: MacEoin, Denis and Al-Shahi, Ahmed, Islam in the Modern World, New York: Routledge, 1983.
Baden, Sally, ‘The Position of Women in Islamic Countries: Possibilities, Constraints, and Strategies for Change’, Bridge Development Gender, Sept., 1992, Report. 4, cited at: http://www.gewamed.net/share/img_documents/15_rep_so1.pdf, accessed on 10th Jan., 2017.
Bhaduri, Aditi, ‘Interview: Dr Nawal El Saadawi’, News Line Magazine, July, 2006, cited at: http://newslinemagazine.com/magazine/interview-dr-nawal-el-saadawi/, accessed on 10th Jan., 2017.
Broedel, Hans Peter, The Malleus Maleficarum and the Construction of Witchcraft: Theology and Popular Belief, Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Brundage, James A., Laws, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1987.
Bullough, Vern L. (ed.), Shelton, Brenda (ed.), Slavin, Sarah (ed.), The Subordinated Sex: A History of Attitudes Toward Women, Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1988.
Caplan, Pat (ed.), The Cultural Construction on Sexuality, London: Routledge, 1987.
Crooks, Robert and Baur, Karla, Our Sexuality, 11th Ed., Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2010.
Dialmy, Abdessamad, ‘Sexuality and Islam’, The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, June 2010;15:160–168.
Esposito, John L. (ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Eyadat, Zaid, ‘Islamic Feminism: Roots, Development and Policies’, Global Policy, Vol. 4, Issue 4, (Nov. 13th), 359-368.
Hawkes, Gail, A Sociology of Sex and Sexuality, Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1996.
Hillman, Dr DCA, Original Sin: Ritual Child Rape and the Church, Berkley, California: Ronin, 2012.
Hughes, Aaron W., Abrahamic Religions: On the Uses and Abuses of History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Ibrahim, Celene, ‘Wearing the Headscarf is a Matter of Feminism, Aesthetics and Solidarity for Me’, New York Times, Jan. 6th, 2016, cited at: http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2016/01/06/do-non-muslims-help-or-hurt-women-by-wearing-hijabs/wearing-the-headscarf-is-a-matter-of-feminism-aesthetics-and-solidarity-for-me, accessed on Jan. 7th, 2017.
Inhorn, Marica C., Infertility and Patriarchy: The Cultural Politics of Gender and Family Life in Egypt, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.
Irenaeus, Against the Heresies, cited in: Sophia Institute for Teachers, Love and Mercy: The Story of Salvation: Teacher’s Guide, Washington D.C: Sophia Institute for Teachers, 2015.
Janmohamed, Shelina Zahra, ‘Calling all Feminists: Get Over the Veil Debate, Focus on Real Problems’, Aljazeera, 25th Sept., 2013, cited at: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2013/09/calling-all-feminists-get-over-veil-debate-focus-real-problems-201392573343242621.html, accessed on 8th Jan., 2017.
Klingorova, Kamila and Havlicek, Tomas, ‘Religion and Gender Inequality: The Status of Women in the Societies of World Religions’, Moravian Geographical Reports, Feb., 2015, Vol. 23, cited at: http://www.academia.edu/13490676/Religion_and_gender_inequality_The_status_of_women_in_the_societies_of_world_religions, accessed on 10th Jan, 2017.
Kramarae, Cheris (ed.) and Spender, Dale (ed.), Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women: Global Women’s Issues and Knowledge, Vol. 1: Ability – Education: Globalization, ‘Christianity’, New York: Routledge, 2000.
Lemon, M.A., (1993). ‘Sexual Counselling and Spinal Cord Injury’. Sexuality and Disability. 11 (1), 73-97, cited in: Miller, Eva and Marini, Irmo, Sexuality and Spinal Cord Injury Counselling Implications, cited in: Marini, Irmo (ed.) and Stebnicki, Mark A., The Psychological and Social Impact of Illness and Disability6th Ed., New York: Springer Publishing Company, LLC, 2012.
Maha, ‘Why the Wrapped vs Unwrapped Candy Analogy is Wrong When it Comes to the Hijab’, Mahavalous, 2nd March, 2014, cited at: https://mahavalous.com/2014/03/02/why-the-wrapped-vs-unwrapped-candy-analogy-is-wrong-when-it-comes-to-hijab/, accessed on Jan. 9th, 2017.
Mernissi, Fatima, Beyond the Veil: Male-Female Dynamics in Modern Muslim Society, Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1975.
Moghissi, Haideh, Populism and Feminism in Iran: Women’s Struggle in a Male-Defined Revolutionary Movement, London: MacMillan Press Ltd, 1994.
Moghissi, Haideh (ed.), Women and Islam: Critical Concepts in Sociology, Vol. 1: Images and Realities, London: Routledge, 2005.
Padgug, Robert A., Sexual Matters: On Conceptualizing Sexuality in History, cited in: Parker, Richard and Aggleton, Peter, Culture, Society and Sexuality: A Reader, London: UCL Press, 1999.
Pall, Zoltan, Lebanese Salafis Between the Gulf and Europe: Development, Fractionalization and Transnational Networks of Salafism in Lebanon, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2013.
Radford-Ruether, Rosemary (ed.), Religion and Sexism: Images of Woman in the Jewish and Christian Traditions, Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 1998.
Radford-Ruether, Rosemary, Women in World Religions: Discrimination, Liberation, and Backlash, cited in: Arvind Sharma (ed.), The World’s Religions: A Contemporary Reader, Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2011.
Raphael, Melissa, Introducing Theology: Discourse on the Goddess, Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999.
Sawyer, Deborah F., Women and Religion in the First Christian Centuries, London: Routledge, 1996.
Schott, Robin May, Cognition and Eros: A Critique of the Kantian Paradigm, University Park, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988.
Sharma, Arvind (ed.), Women in World Religions, Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1987.
Stearns, Peter N. (ed.), World History in Documents: A Comparative Reader, 2nd Ed., New York: New York University Press, 2008.
Subberwal, Ranjana, Dictionary of Sociology, New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, 2009, cited at: https://books.google.co.jp/books?id=lNgIfUqkwusC&pg=SL16-PA2&dq=Sociology+patriarchy+definition&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjp1LuWxpjRAhXLE7wKHSlrAdYQ6AEIKjAC#v=onepage&q=Sociology%20patriarchy%20definition&f=false, accessed on 29th Dec, 2016.
Tibi, Bassam, Political Islam, World Politics and Europe: From Jihadist to Institutional Islamism, London: Routledge, 2014.
Wagemakers, Joas, Salafism in Jordan: Political Islam in a Quietist Community, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016.
Walby, Sylvia, Theorizing Patriarchy, Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd., 1990.
Willis, Ellen, The Mass Psychology of Terrorism, cited in: Aronowitz, Stanley (ed.) and Gautney, Heather (ed.), Implicating Empire: Globalization and Resistance in the 21st Century World Order, New York: Basic Books, 2003.
Wolf, Anne Marie, Juan De Segovia: Lessons of History, cited in: Doubleday, Simon R. (ed.) and Coleman, David (ed.), In the Light of Medieval Spain: Islam, the West, and the Relevance of the Past, New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008.
Woodhead, Linda, Women and Religion, cited in: Woodhead, Linda (ed.), Fletcher, Paul (ed.), Kawanami, Hiroko (ed.) and Smith, David (ed.), Religions in the Modern World, London: Routledge, 2002.
Yusuf, Hanna, ‘My Hijab has Nothing to Do with Oppression, It’s a Feminist Statement’, The Guardian, June, 24th, 2015, cited at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/video/2015/jun/24/hijab-not-oppression-feminist-statement-video, accessed on Jan. 7th, 2017.

1 comment: